Eight reasons why people are dying in the Mediterranean

According to the International Organization for Migration (IOM), more than 600 people lost their lives in the Mediterranean during the first four months of 2021. This is more than twice the number of deaths recorded over the same period last year.

The deadliest route is the Central Mediterranean route. More than 600 refugees and migrants departing from the cost of Libya are reported dead or missing so far this year, according to IOM.

Here are eight things you should know about refugees and migrants risking their lives on the journey from Libya to Europe:

1: More than half a million people affected

More than half a million migrants, refugees and asylum seekers are currently living in Libya. They are amongst the most vulnerable people in the country and are at risk of arbitrary detention in inhumane conditions, as well as exploitation, kidnapping, sexual violence, torture and extortion, among other abuses. Most of them do not have legal status in Libya and have no way to make their status official or apply for work permits.

2: Thousands being held in detention sites

Large numbers of migrants continue to be arbitrarily detained for unlawfully entering Libya. Thousands of migrants and refugees are believed to be being held in detention sites, including informal ones not run by the government. Conditions in these detention centres are extremely poor, with overcrowding commonplace and facilities inadequate. Migrants have reported suffering abuse in the detention centres.

3: More than 600 lives lost at sea so far this year

Although a large percentage of these communities stay in Libya for extended periods of time to access informal work and send money back home, the number of people attempting to cross the Mediterranean has sharply increased during the first four months of 2021. According to IOM, 612 people lost their lives in the Mediterranean during the first four months of 2021. This is more than twice the number of deaths recorded over the same period last year.

4: True number likely to be much higher

IOM’s ability to monitor deaths in the central Mediterranean has been drastically reduced because of the absence of state search-and-rescue vessels.  So, the actual number of deaths is likely to be much higher.

5: No safe and legal pathways to Europe

Safe and legal pathways to reach Europe are practically non-existent, pushing people to risk their lives crossing the Mediterranean. With summer approaching more people are expected to attempt this perilous journey.

6: Sea rescues becoming more difficult

International law obliges states to rescue people at sea. However, as attitudes harden in Europe against asylum seekers and migrants, most of whom come from Africa and the Middle East, more countries are violating the law. Countries like Italy and Malta have barred migrant vessels from disembarking in their ports. European countries have imposed fines on private rescue ships such as the Ocean Viking and introduced rules making it difficult for such vessels to rescue migrants at sea.

7: Much responsibility lies with the EU

The EU bears much of the responsibility for the huge death toll in the Mediterranean. The EU and its member states have thus far focused on deterring migrants and refugees from trying to reach their shores. We need them instead to support search-and-rescue missions to save people in danger.

8: Libya not a safe port for return

Migrants and refugees who are returned to Libya face indefinite, arbitrary detention and a real risk of sexual violence, torture, forced labour, extortion and other forms of ill treatment. Thousands of migrants, refugees and asylum seekers seeking refuge through the central Mediterranean route have been intercepted by the EU-funded Libyan Coast Guard and returned to Libya. Many have faced horrendous abuses.

(Roald Høvring/NRC)

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